रसायन के लिए शोध पद्धति


1 - Literature Survey:

Print: Sources of information: Primary, secondary, tertiary sources; Journals: Journal abbreviations, abstracts, current titles, reviews, monographs, dictionaries, text-books, current contents, Introduction to Chemical Abstracts and Beilstein, Subject Index, Substance Index, Author Index, Formula Index, and other Indices with examples. Digital: Web resources, E-journals, Journal access, TOC alerts, Hot articles, Citation index, Impact factor, H-index, E-consortium, UGC infonet, E-books, Internet discussion groups and communities, Blogs, Preprint servers, Search engines, Scirus, Google Scholar, ChemIndustry, Wiki- Databases, ChemSpider, Science Direct, SciFinder, Scopus. Information Technology and Library Resources: The Internet and World Wide Web. Internet resources for chemistry. Finding and citing published information. (20 Lectures)

2 - Methods of Scientific Research and Writing Scientific Papers:

Reporting practical and project work. Writing literature surveys and reviews. Organizing a poster display. Giving an oral presentation.

Writing scientific papers – justification for scientific contributions, bibliography, description of methods, conclusions, the need for illustration, style, publications of scientific work. Writing ethics. Avoiding plagiarism. (20 Lectures)

3 - Chemical Safety and Ethical Handling of Chemicals:

Safe working procedure and protective environment, protective apparel, emergency procedure and first aid, laboratory ventilation. Safe storage and use of hazardous chemicals, procedure for working with substances that pose hazards, flammable or explosive hazards, procedures for working with gases at pressures above or below atmospheric – safe storage and disposal of waste chemicals, recovery, recycling and reuse of laboratory chemicals, procedure for laboratory disposal of explosives, identification, verification and segregation of laboratory waste, disposal of chemicals in the sanitary sewer system, incineration and transportation of hazardous chemicals. (12 Lectures)

4 - Data Analysis

The Investigative Approach: Making and Recording Measurements. SI Units and their use.Scientific method and design of experiments. Analysis and Presentation of Data: Descriptive statistics. Choosing and using statistical tests. Chemometrics. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), Correlation and regression, Curve fitting, fitting of linear equations, simple linear cases, weighted linear case, analysis of residuals, General polynomial fitting, linearizing transformations, exponential function fit, r and its abuse. Basic aspects of multiple linear regression analysis. (13 Lectures)

5 - Electronics

Basic fundamentals of electronic circuits and their components used in circuits of common instruments like spectrophotometers, typical circuits involving operational amplifiers for electrochemical instruments. Elementary aspects of digital electronics. (10 Lectures)

6 - Reference Books

  1. Dean, J. R., Jones, A. M., Holmes, D., Reed, R., Weyers, J. & Jones, A. (2011) Practical skills in chemistry. 2nd Ed. Prentice-Hall, Harlow.
  2. Hibbert, D. B. & Gooding, J. J. (2006) Data analysis for chemistry. Oxford University Press.
  3. Topping, J. (1984) Errors of observation and their treatment. Fourth Ed., Chapman Hall, London.
  4. Harris, D. C. Quantitative chemical analysis. 6th Ed., Freeman (2007) Chapters 3-5.
  5. Levie, R. de, How to use Excel in analytical chemistry and in general scientific data analysis. Cambridge Univ. Press (2001) 487 pages.
  6. Chemical safety matters – IUPAC – IPCS, Cambridge University Press, 1992.
  7. Chakraborty, T. (Ed.), Ledwani, L. (Ed.). (2016). Research Methodology in Chemical Sciences. New York: Apple Academic Press, https://doi.org/10.1201/9781315366616
  8. How, Fiona N. F. Research Methodology in Chemistry. IIUM Press, International Islamic University Malaysia, 2011.
  9. Hoffman, A., “Scientific writing and communication”, 2ndEd., Oxford University Press.2014
  10. Katz, M. J., “From Research to Manuscripts: A Guide to Scientific Research”, 2nd Ed, Springer.2009
  11. Ebel, H. F., Bliefert, C., and Russey, W. E., “The art of scientific writing”, 2ndEd, Wiley-VCH.2004
  12. Kothari, C. R., “Research Methodology Methods and Techniques”, 2ndEd, Vishwa Prakashan.2006
  13. “Chemical safety matters–IUPAC–IPCS”, Cambridge University Press.1992

7 - Chemical Safety and Hazard information

This resource contains various links to Organic synthesis, Journals, and universities.

8 - Desk Reference

9 - WEB


Overview of chemistry research: Objectives of research, importance of researchmethodology in chemistry research, general principles of research design, types and methods of research, identification of research-problem, and statement of research problem.

Chemical literature survey: Sources of information, need for reviewing literature, primary-secondary-tertiary sources, journals, journal abbreviations, abstracts, current titles, reviews, monographs, dictionaries, text books, current contents; TOC alerts,Search engines(Google scholar, SciFinder, Beilstein,Web of Science, Scopus),publication ranking analytics, author identification –ORCID and Publons ID.

Chemistry data presentation tools:Use of drawing tools such as Excel, SigmaPlot, Origin, Matlab, ChemDraw and open source software; plotting of various spectra, images and diagrams.

Methods of chemistry research: Inculcation of scientific temper, avoidance of prejudices and lax judgements, impulses of a strong will to do research, persistent hard work and concentration, developing high-mindedindependence of judgement and thirst for scientific originality, planning of research, formulation of selected problems, hypothesis formation, design and execution of experiments, collection and interpretation of experimental data, observation, arriving at conclusions; Maintaining logbooks, documentation of experiments and data in laboratory notebook, importance of safety and security of data.

Documentation and presentation of research output: Reporting the results of research -style and format, title, abstract and the text, abbreviations, tables, figures, legends, elucidations, quotations and footnotes, references; Guidelines of presentation of data, typesetting, templates, formulas and equations, reference formats, supplementary data; Writing style for communications, perspectives, review articles, accounts monographs, dissertations and theses; drafting, refinement, common errors, editing services, proof reading; Presentation modes –board, poster, power-point, audio-visual.

Ethics in research: Authorship, citation and acknowledgement, reproducibility of results, plagiarism, similarity check, duplicate and redundant publications, predatory publishing, open access licenses, embargo period, repositories, conflicts of interest, bio-ethics, social networks for promotion, intellectual property rights.

Chemical and laboratory safety : Safety rules of laboratory, MSDS, disposal of chemical wastes, use of fire extinguisher, first aid and antidote